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Drug Screen Confirmation

Initial drug screens are confirmed using a direct, highly quantitative method known as LC-MS/MS (liquid chromatography coupled with a tandem mass spectrometer detection). This method takes a little more time, requires an extraction step to separate the drug from urine components, a separation step via liquid chromatography (LC), and detection of a molecular fingerprint for each drug or analyte (MS/MS). Unlike drug screening methods, which rely on antibodies to recognize the target analyte (drug), LC-MS/MS is considered to be a direct measurement of the drug on solution. It is highly specific and fully quantitative, which means that we can identify the exact drug and measure the amount present in urine.

Once patient samples have been screened, quantitative results will be determined using LC-MS/MS technology. The procedure for this requires three main steps: sample clean-up, also referred to as extraction, separation using chromatography, and detection using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The last two steps are commonly referred to as LC-MS/MS. Since many of the drugs that we are dealing with have a primary metabolite that is referred to as a glucuronide, the sample extraction procedure usually begins with the conversion of the glucuronide back to the parent drug. Failure to perform this step could lead to an underestimation of the amount of drug in the patient’s urine. Following the cleavage step, urine samples are prepared for analysis using LC-MS/MS. The separation component of the confirmation process is performed using liquid chromatography. During this step, a complex mixture of drugs can be separated out, and each drug will be sent to the mass spectrometer at a specific time during the run. This time is known as the retention time for a given drug on the liquid chromatography column. The retention time of the drug is one of the parameters that factors into the positive identification of a drug.

Once the different drugs that are present in a urine sample are separated by liquid chromatography, they are then detected by MS/MS technology. This technology provides a fingerprint that positively identifies each drug in the patient sample. The parent drugs are broken down in the MS/MS system into daughter ions. We monitor two parent ion to daughter ion transitions for each drug. Not only are the transitions that are monitored unique, but the ratios of the daughter ions produced are constant for each drug. Tandem mass spectrometry permits the positive identification of a drug based on the presence of these parent > daughter transitions and the ratio of the two transitions to each other at a given retention time. In order to provide fully quantitative results, calibration curves are prepared for every drug in an analytical run, and the amount of drug in a patient sample is calculated from these curves.

Detection and quantitation of a drug using LC-MS/MS technology is considered to provide the best evidence that a patient has taken a given substance and this is the type of information that doctors use when assessing a patient’s drug-taking behavior.

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Frozen Urine

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Contents:

1 - I.V. bag filled with 2 fluid ounces of real human urine.
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1 - instructions

 



Single Use Dehydrated Urine
Dehydrated Urine

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Dehydrated Urine Kit
Dehydrated Urine Kit

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Contents:

1 - I.V. bag filled with 4 fluid ounces of distilled water
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1 - temperature strip
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1 - instructions


Frozen Urine Kit
Frozen Urine Kit

$99.95 + S/H


Contents:

1 - I.V. bag filled with 4 fluid ounces of real human urine.
2 - heating elements
1 - elastic belt
1 - temperature strip
1 - instructions

 

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Urine Drug Test Detection Periods | Medication - Drug Test Urine | How to Pass a Drug Test | Drug Testing Urine Solutions | How Do I Pass a Drug Test | Drug Screen Confirmation | Drug Screen Overview

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